The objective of the agreement is to reduce global warming described in Article 2 in order to implement the UNFCCC by:[11] At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) have been set up to negotiate a legal instrument for climate action from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015. [62] In order to contribute to the objectives of the agreement, countries presented comprehensive national plans to combat climate change (nationally defined contributions, NDC). These are not yet sufficient to meet the agreed temperature targets, but the agreement points to the way forward for further measures. As host and president of COP21, France is committed to supporting a multilateral negotiation process and listening to all stakeholders to reach an agreement: the process of transposing the Paris Agreement into national agendas and implementation has begun. The commitment of least developed countries (LDCs) is an example. The LDC Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency for Sustainable Development initiative, known as LDCs REED, aims to bring sustainable and clean energy to millions of energy-hungry people in LDCs, improve access to energy, create jobs and contribute to achieving sustainable development goals. [73] The agreement officially entered into force on 4 November 2016, a few days before COP22, and was ratified by 169 countries (including the European Union 28), which account for 87.75% of emissions. Since November 2020, 194 states and the European Union have signed the agreement. 187 countries and the EU, which account for about 79% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified the agreement or have joined the agreement, including China and India, the countries with the first and third largest CO2 emissions among UNFCCC members. [1] [77] [78] As of November 2020[update], the United States, Iran and Turkey are the only countries with more than 1% not to be contracting parties. Indeed, research shows that the cost of climate activity far outweighs the cost of reducing carbon pollution. A recent study suggests that if the United States does not meet its climate targets in Paris, it could cost the economy up to $6 trillion in the coming decades.

A lack of compliance with the NPNs currently foreseen in the agreement could reduce global GDP by more than 25% by the end of the century. Meanwhile, another study estimates that achieving – or even exceeding – the Paris targets by investing in infrastructure in clean energy and energy efficiency could have great benefits globally – about $19 trillion. Scientists have warned that the agreement is not enough to prevent catastrophic global warming, as promises to reduce co2 from countries will not be enough to meet temperature targets. Other criticisms focus on the agreement`s ability to address the permeability of climate change in the most vulnerable countries, such as most African countries, many South Asian countries and several countries in South and Central America. Since countries have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue, as a UNFCCC Schedule 1 country, to prepare national communications and an annual inventory of greenhouse gases. [91] The agreement commits all countries to reduce their emissions and cooperate to adapt to the effects of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time.