1 PRoCEEdings oF A woRkSHoP on dEtERRing CYBERAttACkS user negligence also leads to costly breakdowns in defense. Victims, especially businesses whose businesses need safe cyber activities, often do not report mistakes and successful attacks so as not to damage their reputations. This in turn results in a slower response to attacks and greater damage. The lack of information sharing is a serious obstacle to effective defence. 2. National Measures Many national governments have passed laws to deter and deter certain forms of cyberattacks or exploitation. The United States, for example, has passed laws that criminalize various behaviors, including improper interference in computer systems and intentional damage to computer systems.18 However, these laws have little or no impact on individuals, groups or governments through which the United States is not or is unable to guarantee regulatory or criminal jurisdiction. U.S. security experts insist almost exclusively on the need for national action to improve cybersecurity. They recommend national laws to protect the exchange of information on threats and attacks; methods used by government agencies, such as the NSA, to cooperate with private entities – links in assessing the source and type of cyberattacks; and more effective defence and response to cyberattacks and operations, developed through publicly funded research and coordination, in line with cybersecurity plans.

Such efforts are underway and the U.S. government is an audit – strategic defence can be developed and used to protect critical infrastructure that depends on vulnerable cyber systems.19 The July 2010 GAO report describes the specific roles played by many U.S. authorities in efforts to improve “global cybersecurity,” but ultimately concludes that these efforts are not part of a coherent strategy that could advance U.S. interests. It considers the National Security Council (NSC) to be the “main -pal forum” for all national security issues that require the participation of the President and takes into account (p.